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Utopic cities: theory and planning


by  Claudia LAMBERTI

Utopic cities: theory and planning

Designing a city has always been a program of the social and political relationships among men that will dwell it. The laws of the several rulers were turned into ideal cities, "carved in stone words", as Piero Pierotti said. Since ancient times, when cities were meant to be the living place of both gods and men, the architect's imagination and the commitment's purpose worked together to build new settlements. The word "utopia" was born in Greece, but it reached its climax within urban planning during Humanism and Renaissance: since Filarete's and Francesco di Giorgio Martini's projects, until  Thomas More's emblematic book and the writings of such philosophers as Tommaso Campanella, that was "the Age of ideal cities" ........................



Claudia Lamberti. Born in Pisa in 1975, Claudia Lamberti graduated summa cum laude in History of Town Planning, with a thesis about "The Futurist city: from the historical avant-garde to the technological utopism of R.B. Fuller". Then she attended the School of Specialization in History of Arts at the University of Pisa, discussing summa cum laude the thesis "Theoretical texts of architecture in Vienna fin-de-siecle": the main chapter of this work was published in a journal of the Austrian Academy of Sciences. In 2008 Claudia Lamberti obtained her Ph.D. in History of Architecture with a thesis about "The City of the Expressionists, images and urban utopias in Germany 1910-1930", from which she wrote a book in 2010. She teached History of Cities and Town-Planning and History of Architecture in the University of Florence (Master "Sustainable Architecture in the Mediterranean Cities") and in the University of Pisa (Faculty of Humanities and Faculty of Engineering). She was a speaker at some conferences of Urban History, and she is a member of AISU (Associazione Italiana di Storia Urbana). She wrote many scientific papers published in national and international journals.




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Lo schermo della periferia
This essay intends to investigate the urban and human dimension in the movies of De Sica, Pasolini and Rosi. It intends to investigate, in particular, two pivotal movies in Pier Paolo Pasolini's Roman period, such as Accattone (1961) and Mamma Roma (1962), and Il tetto (1956) of De Sica, focusing on the re-semantization of film space related to a specific suburb area and the historical context. Accattone e Mamma Roma plots develop deeply linked both to Pasolini Fifty's romances and INA-Casa Government urban plan. Il Tetto plots develop inside of the neorealistic language of Zavattini and De Sica. In fact, at that time, Rome has started expanding its borders, building new suburbs in which a particular social class has gone living. In the three so-called movies 'della borgata' historical, social and architectonical background merges into fictional screen crossing disciplinary fields. Le mani sulla citta' (1963) by Rosi reveals another aspect of suburbs: the urban speculation. The four films represent both the genesis of the suburbs of Italian cities and their current problems.

Keywords: INA-Casa, Rome, Naples, dwelling, urban space, cinema and architecture, borgata.

Inserito il 10/09/2017 17:35 - Leggi tutto »

La mision de San Francisco del Laishi
This advance starts from the reflection on the utopia of the ''good place'' of Thomas More (eu-topos) and of architecture as a discipline that allows the utopia of the moment in a constructed project; This way of thinking is contextualized in the case of the mission of San Francisco del Laishi and its sugar mill in the province of Formosa in Argentina, engine of the sugar development of the region at the beginning of the 20th century and economic sustenance of the same for many years. The mission contains an architectural set of 2 churches, 2 guest houses, enclosures, kitchens, small museum, orchards among others, which is currently protected by Decree Law No. 891 of June 4, 1980, also carries the designation of Provincial Historic Monument And In accordance with Resolution Number 2354 of September 12, 1985, it is declared a Historical Monument of the Argentine Nation, however the ingenuity that forms the architectural set of the mission is protected only by Decree Law 1025 of March 30, 1981, To other small constructions nearby, the mission is the evidence built of the utopia of the Argentine government of turn that gives thousands of hectares of land to the Franciscan friars to indoctrinate in Catholicism and native nomads of 1900. In the advance one tries to analyze and to explain The context of the whole, its architecture and structure. The identified offers arguments for the valorization, conservation, rescue, disclosure, recognition, immediate physical intervention by the recent history of the urban settlement. This work is developed through an ideographic presentation with the objective of making the mission and the ingenuity a visible tourist destination, a cultural destination of international interest, as shown by the utopia built with characteristics of the 16th century.

Key words: Heritage, Mission, Utopia.
Inserito il 11/08/2017 15:30 - Leggi tutto »

Hsinking: la utopia modernista della Grande Asia Orientale
Meticulously designed and planned, Hsinking, capital of Manchukuo, was intended to serve as the main showcase of the Japanese colonial rule in Asia and, at the same time, to represent the test for a wider range of urban projects. For this reason the city featured all those modern tools that was not possible to develop in the Japanese populous cities. In Hsinking, a small village before the Japanese invasion of Manchuria, architects and planners could freely experiment a variety of architectural solutions and urban approaches and, simultaneously, implement their fantasies of modernity in order to apply them on a larger scale throughout the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere.
Keywords: Hsinking, Manchukuo, Japanese Empire, capital city, Great Eastern Asia.

Inserito il 10/06/2017 08:26 - Leggi tutto »

Oltre Akragas: riflessioni sulla valorizzazione della Valle dei Templi
The main purpose of this research is a re-reading of the Valley of the Temples in Agrigento from different perspectives and at different speed of travel. The proposed method is based on the possible relationships between archaeology, landscape, infrastructure, in order to valorize the existing landscape. With a view to improve the Valley, the Archaeological Park could be reinterpreted as archaeological infrastructure connection between the current urban nucleus of Agrigento and neighbouring towns. Each element of the Valley could become one of the pieces of a single system that we could say archaeoinfrastructure, where the heart of a new Akragas could return to pulse during all months of the year.
The Agrigento area is characterized by the presence of five urban settlements that are daily inhabited by Agrigento's people as if they were only one city. The five cities (Agrigento, Villaggio Mose', San Leone, Porto Empedocle, Villa Seta) are connected by a system of streets oversized driveway that, paradoxically, does not allow a quick connection, and confuses the user dilating the crossing. The Valley is a place full of contradictions, due to the twentieth-century urban contaminations and the way it is currently inhabited. This study experiences possible inclusion of these dissociations to turn them into positive components, imagining a distant future where our great-grandchildren will treat with equal respect and care both Temples that the Viaduct Morandi.
Keywords: Landscape, Archaeology, Infrastructures, Heterotopias, Cinegram

Inserito il 10/06/2017 07:57 - Leggi tutto »

Utopie del dinamismo urbano
Since the mid-nineteenth century, the metropolis appeared as one of the most dramatic and contradictory manifestations of the modern age, characterized by cultural and functional problems which required radical reforms in the issues of traffic and transport, in the housing and the organization of domestic life. The futurist Umberto Boccioni interpreted the explosive growth of the city in paintings like ''La citta' che sale'' and Mario Sironi in new urban landscapes of the industrial suburbs. In 1926, the German director Fritz Lang filmed ''Metropolis'' with the expressionist scenography of Erich Kettelhut. The dynamism and the problem of the future of the city became protagonists of discussions of the European, American and Japanese neo avant-garde, until the early seventies. During 1968, Italian radical groups, such as Archizoom or Superstudio, articulated a critique of capitalist cities, putting into question the structure and meaning in the urban utopia of a constant dynamism.
This paper, through the analysis of paintings and urban visions of the twentieth century, proposes to examine numerous design mode that investigated the theme of urban dynamism, looking for solutions or highlighting the limits of these futuristic utopias.
Keywords: metropolis, future progress, constant dynamism.

Inserito il 10/06/2017 07:36 - Leggi tutto »

Progresso e Utopia
The utopian visions of Metropolis (1895) imagined by King Camp Gillette during the Brown Decades at the end of ninetieth, and the Universal Architecture (1932) proposed by Richard Buckminster Fuller in the twenties of twentieth century, are discussed and compared as being paradigms of community and urban planning programs. Both visions share indeed an absolute faith in science and technology progress as privileged vectors of an equally distributed wealth, while diverge on the institutional forms required in order to make effective their proposals. These urban visions, though different from the temporal and ideological point of view, not only give evidence to the impact of the utopian literature on the improvement and the transformation of the physical context, but constitute the theoretical foundation of technological utopianism and of iper-realism till the post-modernity.
Keywords: Utopia, Urban Planning, Community Planning, Architectural History, Technology

Inserito il 08/06/2017 08:04 - Leggi tutto »

I lager dell'utopia
The Mille communities will arise following the two principles of unity and equality - unity however will soon be shattered by factional infighting and equality by those all too obvious inequalities that are still much lamented.
We seek to remedy the most extreme material inequalities by assisting the poorest with public and private charities - today as then making recourse to citizens' income and thousands of voluntary initiatives. Apart from Thomas More's Utopia this programme involves defining once and for all appropriate behaviour for all citizens - behaviour that a group of experts pretend to understand and implement for their happiness. This attitude involves perceiving the whole of society as a true lager where all behaviour is codified, limitations to freedom that continue to suggest that they be regulated by the governments of contemporary society.

Inserito il 08/06/2017 07:40 - Leggi tutto »

Utopia e topos nella Citta' ideale di Leonardo Savioli (1943-1945)
The images of the Citta' ideale and the new urban plan for Firenze prefigured by Leonardo Savioli during the war overlap utopia and reality. They show that the heuristic value of the utopian design is able to overcome the drama of contingency and refound the city.
Keywords: ideal city, Leonardo Savioli, contemporary architecture.
Inserito il 08/06/2017 07:26 - Leggi tutto »

Study of the current patrimonial city
Cities for all. The urban landscape is the result of the interaction of three variables that are: the flat, the use of the ground and the building, giving rise to an infinite variety of urban scenarios, that is to say, urban landscapes. Each city must be analyzed in a systematic way, and then the existing correlation must be established to achieve a synthesis of the urban landscape: The urban landscape is based in the natural environment. Within the plane (in the urbanized space) the genetic morpho units are presented, these can be seen in the drawing of the plane and give rise to some forms in the plane in the urbanized space.
The city of Guanajuato has been the object of architectural urban landscape interventions; As World Heritage City, the historical persistence of the intangible cultural heritage is preceded by the study of its present society. Guanajuato has evolved in a remarkable way supporting adverse natural and social events, resurging marvelously despite the changes in its economic structure, because of being a city that generates wealth in the mining industry as a primary activity, nowadays represents a low percentage transforming into a cultural tourist city with a vocation for service. These changes are reflected in the economy, trade and culture of its inhabitants, but mainly in the landscape. In the city, by its natural evolution the landscape has been transformed in such a way that in its majority it is at the moment an artificial landscape, created by the man, and that in the view of the spectator is interesting, almost magical, where visual messages are perceived Varied as much in its structure as city but of isolated elements, but integrated harmoniously in the urban set, thus we perceive religious, civil, historical, commercial, educational, cultural, industrial constructions (mining).
Keywords: Heritage, landscape, identity

Inserito il 08/06/2017 07:17 - Leggi tutto »

By underlining the distinctiveness of the foundation of Buenos Aires with respect to the other cities of the Nueva España, the aim of the paper which is based on a wide literature review is to highlight the role of literary works in the construction of both urban form and national identity.

Inserito il 21/06/2016 11:20 - Leggi tutto »

On the background of the contemporary re-emerging of some typical issues of the utopian tradition, the aim of this essay is to analyse the meaning and the role played by the utopian dimension within the construction of urban and regional planning by focusing on the relationships between both the Ebenezer Howard´s model of garden city and London during the Industrial Revolution and the latter and the origins of urban and regional planning as a “technical” discipline.

Key-words: utopia, urban and regional planning, industrial revolution, garden city.

Inserito il 12/10/2012 04:36 - Leggi tutto »

In his classic text Cities in History, Lewis Mumford discusses the image and social structure of ancient cities. Mumford refers to the ideal, or dreamed city, as belonging to the urban utopian tradition. This ideal city is the foundation of utopian cities as such.
This utopian trend has run along for centuries and can be interpreted as a natural human inclination to transcend the here and now. The utopian dream has been endless and has permeated all kinds of social endevours. The first versions of the South American utopia can be traced back to mythical drawings which seem to envision a ''fourth continent'' which , in turn, are the germs of the so called '' New World''

Inserito il 17/05/2012 06:11 - Leggi tutto »

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