Memoria di un patrimonio italiano all' estero
Riccardo Morandi (Roma, 1902 - 1989) was an Italian civil engineer best known for his interesting use of reinforced concrete. Amongst his best known works abroad we have the General Rafael Urdaneta Bridge, an 8 km crossing of Lake Maracaibo, in Venezuela incorporating a cable-stayed bridge and a bridge in Barranquilla, in Colombia, designed in 1970-1974. In Italy he has worked to the exploration of reinforced and prestressed concrete structures and embarked on the design of a series of cinema structures and very important bridges. The document analyzes the work in Colombia and the sad fate of the modern engineering in these countries where there are no laws of protection of cultural heritage.
Keywords: Riccardo Morandi, Colombia, Ponte Pumarejo
Continuidad y Discontinuidad de la Facultad Nacional de Arquitectura
This document gives an overview of the Faculty of Architecture at the National University of Colombia from its creation to its recent demolition, is the race fighting, at different times, a cultural battle with a common goal: to have a building to do the teaching of The architecture, property of the Nation and of all the Colombians. The theoretical and methodological convergences fighting each other for a new place or building or according to historical circumstance, from time to time.
The church of Hagia Sophia in the 6th century: the birth of a symbol
This essay brings us back to the birth of the church of Hagia Sophia in Istanbul, in a moment of great splendour of the Byzantine Empire. The ''great church'', as it was defined, played a symbolic role, both from the political point of view, in order to assert the power (and the profession of faith) of Justinian, both from the theological point of view so as to emphasize, with its play of lights and shadows, how divine wisdom underlies creation. The Sixth-Century propaganda helps us to imagine the importance of this building since its construction and how, in any time, possession of this masterwork has been desired. In the name of inter-religious peace, its use today as a museum must be defended.
Keywords: Byzantine architecture, Hagia Sophia, Justinian
Giotto di Bondone nacque a Firenze
The exact place of birth of Giotto has always remained unknown, due to the lack of exact reference sources.
This study presents some documents which can help identify this place
El patrimonio cultural y su protagonismo en las universidades cubanas
The present work provides an approach to the protection and preservation of cultural heritage, as well as the indissoluble bond the university has with the memory of its community.
The main objective pursued is to demonstrate the impact that the knowledge of the cultural heritage has in the training of students as well as their relationship to the preservation of the identity of the university community and its own.
It presents the most relevant results that have been achieved since the publication of several elements (system of teaching aids, brochures, billboards, calendars, files, etc.) as part of all media created to integrate a system that exposes all the registered and unregistered work the Cujae owns, serving as mean to create awareness, in the collective memory, of the need for conservation of tangible and intangible heritage that the university treasures.
Il sistema di difesa durante il Secondo Conflitto Mondiale
The defense system in Sicily during the Second World War is characterized for the most part by military structures of small dimensions, in other cases it is a complex articulation of the spaces and the volumes (2 or 3 elevations), towards the attention to detail, especially when it came camouflage bunker (stone, house, apse, etc.,). The construction was done on the project of the General Staff and the material used was the brickwork and reinforced concrete and not. Natural ventilation is favored by placing a different level inputs with outlet air in places where it was difficult to stagnation gas. Artificial ventilation instead was realized through appropriate external vents. The heating was done with traditional wood stoves. In the Palermo area there are, information retrieved by military archive of Palermo, n. 2,075 military emplacement, different in shape, material and attached environments such as those of the shelter and ammunition. The bunkers also called casamatta, fortino e pillbox; They are situated on the coast, in the provincial roads, in the railway line and still at strategic locations camouflaged with the environment around.
The system of bunkers, is on one hand an evolution of the defense systems of the territory until then in use as the coastal guard towers, on the other hand, in the late twentieth century, it shows how a system obsolete and replaced by the most advanced technological systems (drones, satellite, etc.).
After the war, many families had lost everything, including the house, they took possession of the abandoned bunkers and trasformed in permanent housing. The people did their best to soften the dark aspect of Bunker. The walls were repainted in bright colors and the side of the thick outer walls were built small gardens. Today, most are in a complete state of abandonment by reason of their location, some have been demolished in the vicinity of roads and railway lines, while a small part was entrusted to associations that allow the fruition through guided tours. The renovate and development of the bunker together with guard towers make it possible to describe not only the defense system in use in our country connected to different historical events, but also to examine in depth the aspect technical-constructive of military construction (materials, type , etc.)
The archaeology of the city
Inside cities born with Mediterranean civilizations coexist signs of the past and contemporary. The archaeological ruins are all that now remains of buildings that were designed and lived in a different era and for this reason the instance of archeology and the instance of the architecture should not be considered as opposed to each other but should interact to find the best solution as appropriate. The discovery of archaeological remains within the urban fabric change the existing spatial relationships and would require that these be reformulated through an architectural project. In contrast, the non-intervention is the risk of degradation but also of a loss of sense for the found artifact and also corresponds to a failure to take a position towards the archaeological remains. The intervention in an archaeological urban area should first define the margin; secondly entail a critical choice, that is a selection as to determine a hierarchy that allows the reading of these; finally ensure resemanticization and reintegration of archaeological artifact within the contemporary city through the inclusion of new uses. In this regard some recent projects realized in Spain, whose theme is that of coverage and the fence interpreted as habitable volumes, appear significant; projects in which the function is not necessarily linked to musealization of archaeological finds.
Keywords: definition of margins, critical selection, reinsertion into the urban fabric
TRADITION AND TECHNOLOGY IN THE RESTORATION AND REUSE
The courtyard house is a type of familial and historic dwelling, which offers technical and design solutions to a variety of social needs, such as ventilation and family privacy. Previous studies show that the courtyard is a traditional typology that actively contributes to the wellbeing of the dwellers by providing aesthetic, thermal and social benefits. This study focuses on how traditional knowledge can be used as a tool to design contemporary sustainable architecture. Specifically the main research focuses on the spatial, static and material analysis of the case study Dar Dgi'ra in Rabat Morocco. The aim is to develop an exhaustive understanding of what is unique and significant about the Moroccan urban courtyard type (the Dar) so as to make informed choices for the management needed to preserve it for future generations. This project puts forward a design suggesting the adaption of the Dar using traditional knowledge for its reuse as a public hammam. The design proposal aims to conserve the Dar in a manner which respects its history while at the same time adapting it to ensure its future viability.
Keywords: Restoration, Reuse, Sustainability
EL RIO MAGDALENA. UNA RUTA CULTURAL EN EL DEPARTAMENTO DEL TOLIMA
The study of the protection of the landscape and of the architectural heritage in Colombia is a topic very important.
This paper analyzes the region of Tolima in Colombia and a particular cultural route between ancient traditions and colonial cities. Through the descriptions of ancient English and Italian travelers (nineteenth century) the same places have been studied by the authors. The analyzes were developed on the city of Honda, Mariquita and Ambalema and these studies permitted the depth study of ancient building techniques and intangible traditions. This contribution is the result of a interdisciplinary and international collaboration between the Kyoto University (Japan), Universidad de Ibagué (Colombia) and Universidad de Oriente (Cuba).
BRUNO VIOLI Y LA OBRA DEL EDIFICIO ''EL TIEMPO''
Bruno Violi, Italian architect has been listed as an architect of the modern movement, denomination easily justified in considering his built work and in the immense material drawings today are a valuable source for research about the origins and development of modern art in Colombia, from architecture. In search of modern principles Violi with other architects trained in Europe, working on worthwhile projects of national architecture, such as the University City in 1939, forming a stream of art that influences significantly the history of Colombian architecture, produced during the decades of the 40's buildings 70'sy currently recognized as a national heritage. Bruno Violi articulated the idea of architecture built on two fundamental entities-bearing structure and sectors closing-expressed in concrete formally different, both the construction process and the values and quality materica, grain and color. The option of Violi for the dualistic structure / closure is therefore a fundamental poetic assertion that concrete in building “El Tiempo” (1958), with the clarity and concise nature of a manifesto and reports on previous and subsequent developments of its architecture. Violi able to resolve this contradiction with the domination of technology in a new architectural order through a long and careful investigation.
Bruno Violi, modern architecture, construction, coating, technique, structure, construction, sublime, character, printing.
LA CONSERVACION DE LA ARQUITECTURA PATRIMONIAL DEL SIGLO XX
The study of the protection of the architectural heritage of the twentieth century can analyze specific cultural parameters to define the value of architecture. The focus is mainly on architecture created by architects of national and international fame. It is rather interesting to analyze also the architectural development often excluded by parameters of evaluation because it was considered of no great value. To understand the development of cities is fundamental to analyze this heritage also ignored. Is important to define the evaluation criteria of this heritage and conservation methods. In the analysis of evaluation involved political, social, economic and generated different ways of preserving this heritage.
Il posto di Maredolce. Un paradiso a Brancaccio
By sharing of the presentation to the Colloquium RIGPAC, we want to account for a number of initiatives to Palermo from the restoration of a monument, the Palace rediscovered of Maredolce (norman foundation of seniority arabic), we are conducting for there development of industrial Brancaccio area of Palermo. To preserve the identity of the community has created a public-private partnership coordinated by the Department of the University of Palermo, which has set in motion several parallel actions aimed at:
- The enhancement and use of the building closed to the public and to be rediscovered by the Forum of onlus organization that deal with cultural property in Palermo (exhibitions, guided tours).
- Active involvement of the resident population by the international project PARTERRE, (modeled on the experience of the Tuscany Region), which has experienced a Brancaccio an electronic instrument dedicated to participatory planning: Electronic Town Meeting (E-TM) to allow the people themselves to participate in decision-making in the city (Strategic Plan).
ESTUDIO DE CASO MALECÓN TRADICIONAL DE LA HABANA - CUBA
In Cuba, the constructions, in a general way, are subjected to a process of marked deterioration, given by the lack of systematic maintenance, the envelope exploitation, the bad quality of the materials and the processes of execution inadequate employees in the constructive carried out interventions.
In the last half a decade, they have been carried out constructive interventions to a group of constructions of housings of the Traditional Pier with new materials but without achieving a substantial advance neither a durable recovery of the same ones. The specialists possess approaches divided on if it is adapted or not the use of these materials. However, a real evaluation of the effectiveness of these solutions doesn't exist in front of those considered as traditional.
This work shows the results of the investigation carried out by the author to opt for the grade of Máster in social Housing and its tutor. He is carried out an approach to the use and development of these New Materials in Cuba. The solutions are evaluated for the alterations identified in the Pier as much with traditional materials as with the new materials as for execution speed, durability and annual costs and he/she is defined which is the most suitable solution to face the recovery of the same ones.
Key words: conservation, durability, interventions, materials, recovery.
ARCHITETTURA, “GRADO-ZERO” E CONSERVAZIONE
This paper aims to be the first step for a reflection about how a certain king of architectural heritage object should be better preserved.
Key-notes: Heritage, Architecture, Preservation.
DAMAGE TO HISTORICAL BRICK-ARCH BRIDGES IN THE ALTO CAUCA REGION
ABSTRACT: This article presents a set of factors that have caused significant damage to historical brick-arch bridges located in the southwest region of Colombia known as ''Alto Cauca''. These causes can be sorted into three categories (natural causes, errors in the construction process, and human intervention). These factors must be completely identified as a task prior to any preservation and restoration work on these types of structures.
Key words: structural damage, brickwork bridges, construction pathologies.
RESTAURAR LA UNIVERSIDAD ...
Today, universities cannot ignore Bogotá's crisis in public health and infrastructure works. On the contrary, they ought to get more involved in it every day. But there are cultural overcrowding and saturation in university population. The supply of postgraduate courses and institutions has rocketed. However, neither the country nor the cities where universities are concentrated are ready to stand up to it, especially in the condition of cultural dependence in which we are today in Colombia.
Key words: growth, knowledge, dependence, education, student, family, researcher, mercantilism, teacher, professional
SAN FRANCESCO NELLA RABATANA DI TURSI
The Convent of San Francesco in Tursi founded between the XIV and XV century is one of the oldest and most beautiful of Basilicata. Over the centuries it has undergone many changes and alterations due to the tastes, trends, natural disasters and wars.
Lost its function at the beginning of the twentieth century, the building has been degraded.
During the twenty-first century, invasive restorations have distorted the structure, as saying that the restauration work coused many changes damaging the originality.
state of ruin; transformation; restauration
L'UNESCO E LA TUTELA DEL “FENG MAO”
The paper concerns the issue of conservation of both tangible and intangible heritage. This enlarged point of view become particularly relevant in not-western cultural contexts, requiring a multidisciplinary approach. The Chinese case study shows how conservation should be mainly intended as a process of knowledge construction aimed to a collective awareness of the local identity.
Key-words: cultural landscape, economic growth, multidisciplinary approach.
Ambasciata in Europa nell'era Keicho
In occasione della presentazione del libro Giappone. Tutela e conservazione di antiche tradizioni, a cura di Olimpia Niglio e Koji Kuwakino. Gabinetto Scientifico Letterario Vieusseux, Vieusseux Asia, Firenze.
Italian - Japanese
La cripta di San Michele in Borgo a Pisa: un tesoro da salvare
The crypt of church of San Michele in Borgo was discovered by Alessandro da Morrona during the XIX century. Probably, the crypt belonged to the native building of X century and it´s vault was decorated with frescos during the XII century. Important repairs were effected by Peleo Bacci in the 1911 and by Piero Sanpaolesi and Massimo Carmassi during the second postwar period. Unfortunatly, the intervention of repair were never brought to term and nowadays the crypt appears in state of neglect.
L'opera di Francesco Riccardo Monti
Francesco Riccardo Monti (1888 - 1958) was an Italian sculptor who resided in the Philippines from 1930 to 1958. He is known for his many works of public sculpture during the Commonwealth and post-war years in the Philippines.
LA URBANIZACIÓN SAN FRANCISCO JAVIER
En 1911, el sacerdote español José María Campoamor fundó la sociedad Círculo de Obreros con el ánimo de mejorar las condiciones de vida de los obreros de Bogotá. Después vino la Caja de Ahorros del Círculo de Obreros, y en 1913 se inició la construcción de una urbanización de 120 casas para sus afiliados. Estas solo se daban en arriendo, y se les adjudicaban exclusivamente a obreros asalariados sin propiedad alguna, quienes debían cumplir un reglamento de convivencia y observar sólidos principios religiosos. Dicha urbanización se construyó al sur de la ciudad, en las afueras de entonces, con una serie de particularidades que la hicieron casi autosuficiente y la convirtieron en la primera urbanización para obreros de Colombia y en un ejemplo de construcción social y convivencia, cuya arquitectura y cuyos habitantes, viviendo en una especie de pueblito, forjaron una identidad propia sin intervención del Estado.
Preservación del Patrimonio Arquitectónico Industrial
The present work features the proposal for the repair, reinforcement and reconstruction of Bodega Arizu (Arizu Winery). The Bodega Arizu building dates from 1888 and it has been designated National Historic Monument. It is located on the Province of Mendoza (Argentina – South America) which is considered a high seismic risk zone. At first, the building of a shopping mall was projected in the site, but the idea was soon dismissed due to incompatibility with the area. At present, the building is run-down. The proposal aims at rescuing the architectural heritage represented by Bodega Arizu within the city's historic, social and economic context, since such winery is considered a symbol of Mendoza's viticulture history and technological progress. In order to undertake the proposal, several tests were conducted to determine the forces acting upon the existing structure of the former winery's main building (clay bricks - brick arches). The structure presents severe damages such as collapse decks, wall cracks, and leakage. All this deficiencies have led to increasing building deterioration. The seismic risk aggravates the situation and makes the structure prone to major damages caused by dynamic excitations.
For the purpose of exploiting the tourist and cultural potential of this industrial historic heritage site, various solutions complying with state-of the-art public safety standards and regulations in force were given and the winery building was adapted to present structural, architectural and urban requirements
LA CAMERA OTTICA ED IL SUO IMPIEGO
During the XVIII century, painters and architects in the Veneto used the ''camera obscura'' to make city views and drawings of individual buildings. This article examines the history of this instrument from its origins to its use by the Venetian townscape painters and architects in the 1700s; furthermore the text reports about the different kinds of “camera obscura” it was possible to use in the XVIII century showing some pictures included a pattern of the camera known as Canaletto's one.
ARCHITETTURA DEL MONDO ISLAMICO
The architecture of the Islamic world is often considered, even nowadays, like an indistinct whole, notwithstanding its century-old history and multiple artistic forms, risen on an area that involves forty nations and spans over three continents. This is the consequence of an Eurocentric and outdated vision, which considers Islam as a static, monolithic and closed universe: a symmetric vision also shared by some ideological trends existing inside the Islamic world itself. Islam art, architecture and culture, instead, cannot be fully understood if not considering the interactions and trading with various other civilizations. Breaking with the traditional isolation of the Muslim universe, this book underlines the fertile fabric of intercultural contaminations which characterize the architecture in the Islamic world during the Middle Age, between VII and XV century, from the Iberian peninsula to Sicily, from Egypt to India, and shows, thanks also to a rich, and mostly unpublished, iconographic apparatus, the peculiarity of the styles that mark different periods and regions.
Torino: il nuovo volto dell'ex Choccolat Tobler
Main theme of the project is the concept of liveliness, enlighted also by the particular location of the transforming area, crossroad of different cultural logics and interests; however it's exactly the fragmented identity of this area which permits to risk innovative solutions which aim to improve its image and to encourage a future economic progress. In the same concept of liveliness the project bases its moves for a reinterpretation of living, through a flexible use of the spaces which determined the peculiar wedge logic of the residential units.
Il Palazzo Pretorio di Anghiari nel XX secolo
The Pretorio Building, in Anghiari town center, today shows a complex history of transformations and restaurations. Most of them were due to important seismic events that, since the XIII century, have been widely documented. Starting from the XX century, the main interventions followed the damages caused by earthquakes that held from the 1917 to the 2001. Today the Building is object of a restauration project and seismic improvement as provided from the recent Lines for the evaluation and reduction of the seismic risk of the cultural patrimony.
DEL MONUMENTO A LA CIUDAD
Dentro del cambiante mundo de hoy y su paulatina pérdida de referencias, uno de los temas más recurrentes, particularmente en el estudio de la ciudad, es el que tiene que ver con la preservación de su patrimonio. En este orden de ideas, conceptos como “monumento arquitectónico” o “centro histórico” cobran especial vigencia en tanto su existencia, al menos tal y como la conocemos tradicionalmente, resulta en entredicho a la luz de la evanescente movilidad de la ciudad actual. De este modo, la pregunta que surge no puede ser otra que: ¿cómo orientarnos en medio del cambio? O, dicho de otro modo, ¿de qué valernos en medio de la movilidad? Cuestionamiento que a su vez nos lleva a interrogarnos por los medios para hacerlo y, en este mismo sentido, por lo que en realidad vale la pena “conservar” para alcanzar este fin.
En este mismo sentido, surge la duda de si podemos seguir llamando “monumento” al bien patrimonial y, de no ser así, cómo llamar aquello que en su reemplazo permite asumir su papel referencial, ¿qué sería aquello?, ¿cuál sería su naturaleza? y, sobre todo, ¿que relación podríamos establecer con la ciudad a través de él? Preguntas que en última instancia pasan tanto por un nuevo posicionamiento frente a lo que denominamos “historia” como por la construcción de una consecuente teoría de la ciudad.
RELACIÓN DE REGISTROS URBANOS DEL BARRIO SAN FRANCISCO JAVIER
Este escrito no pretende ser historia, sino dar algunas puntadas para preservar la memoria de los hombres, es muestra de la investigación que se adelanta hace 7 años sobre el patrimonio modesto en el sur de la cuidad. Es esta una ocupación con características únicas en la ciudad y en el país sin olvidar que en América Latina hay una historia con otra escala de medición. Desde la Independencia de los españoles en 1810 al año de 1911 cuando un grupo de obreros se reúne con un sacerdote a soñar con una vivienda higiénica y digna son casi cien (100) años para lograr crear a las afueras de la ciudad un lugar casi autosuficiente para los obreros, artesanos y sus familias en unas condiciones muy particulares. Tenían un reglamento de convivencia muy estricto, costumbres fuertemente influenciadas por la religión y una estructura urbana que hacia que tuviera sus propias instalaciones y su propia organización. Actualmente el barrio cuenta con 96 años de fundación y la comunidad que la habita en su segunda y tercera generación hicieron una declaratoria ciudadana para reconocer el sitio como patrimonio modesto a nivel Distrital y a la memoria intangible con que cuenta. Esto debido a la paulatina desaparición y a la carencia de una protección normativa que parta desde de la autoridad.
Patrimonio, urbanización, artesanos, vivienda, adobe, obreros, Campoamor, Marias, ahorro, afueras.
Palacio de la Inquisición en Cartagena de Indias
Las obras de restauración del Palacio de la Inquisición y su acondicionamiento para el funcionamiento del Museo Histórico de Cartagena, fueron terminadas en noviembre de 2003. Concluía así un largo proceso iniciado en 1996 cuando el Instituto Nacional de Vías, a través de la Subdirección de Monumentos Nacionales, decidió emprender esa tarea dentro del plan general de rehabilitación del patrimonio arquitectónico que se había propuesto realizar en varios centros históricos del país.
Il Panoptico di Ibagué in Colombia.
A partire dal 1892, secondo le direttive di Jeremy Bentham e su disegno dell'architetto inglese William Blackburn ad Ibagué, nel centro della Colombia, inziavano i lavori per la costruzione di un grande carcere. A pianta cruciforme l'edificio originario rispettava perfettamente le caratteristiche di una struttura a ''Panoptico''. La prima sua occupazione viene fatta risalire al 1902. Dopo un secolo dalla sua istituzione il carcere è stato dismesso ed oggi sono in fase di conclusione i lavori di restauro finalizzati al riuso della struttura come museo della città. Il progetto è dell'architetto Luis Humberto Duque Gómez.
RESTAURO DEL MODERNO
Non solo gli individui, ma anche la scienza può essere psicoanalizzata e sottoposta a terapia allo scopo di smascherare le pigrizie intellettuali che sostengono determinate scelte concettuali e operative, le motivazioni inconsce che inducono a dare per scontate certe nozioni, i bisogni pratici che spingono in una direzione piuttosto che in un'altra, la caparbietà nell'insistere su idee collaudate ma prive di prospettive, l'infantilismo delle esperienze primitive che condizionano i successivi sviluppi, il fascino ingannevole del realismo che dà una falsa sensazione di verità, la pretesa paranoica dell'unificazione e della generalizzazione a ogni costo, la pressione pragmatista del risultato immediatamente utilizzabile, le pulsioni soggettive che condizionano prima le visioni del mondo e poi le teorie scientifiche.
Paesaggi dell'anima, Milano (1996)
Arte e Scienza a confronto - Olimpia Niglio
I criteri che hanno guidato la conoscenza di un'opera d'arte, in passato, si sono fondati principalmente su un giudizio di valore legato alla rivalutazione e al riconoscimento della storicità e dell'artisticità del manufatto oggetto di studio.
VILNIUS CAPITALE DELLA CULTURA EUROPEA 2009
In 2009 Vilnius, capital of Lithuania, will be the capital of the European Culture. Among the initiatives promoted by the Lithuanian Country for this event, the historical centre of the city has been restored and its main monuments have been renewed.