DEMOLIRE COME COSTRUIRE
In the landscape it is possible to recognize certainly the shape of the local singularities. It is possible to gain again, conserve or lose the local meaning of the places if we are able or not to understand (composing/designing) the need of introduce new and different elements in the context. On the Costa Ionica - the project area of the 6th Lid´A Laboratory - as elsewhere, the tumultuous urbanization and the construction action already overcame the limit that linked this heimat (native place) and the genius loci. Here the many “eco-monsters” are buildings that are witness of this violence. A demolition project can represent here not the tabula rasa but the architectural art of forgetting. Through demolition it is possible to mark a new beginning, a way of doing architecture after the perception of the loss of the local character: the trauma of demolition, able to take back to a measure, opens again the place to the confident and positive reception of Architecture. Demolition becomes a rite of re-foundation, of a new possession of the site: the demolition makes again the place, in the sense that it is necessary condition for the construction of a “new place”. Demolition opens again to the meaning of a void and re-builds the condition of an architectural potential in the site. Within an incessant dialectic between memory and oblivion, programmed destructions for the construction of a new landscape produce a new landscape, producing mutually demolition and construction and, in this sense, a Project concerns both: only in this way it will be possible to introduce a architectural technique of landscape.
Bogotá D.C y Santiago de Tunja. Problemáticas centros históricos
Through the development of the semester, we find a problem to focus and solve it. This investigation had as main topic the historical center, studied since a point of view where the heritage was the most important idea.
As well, this investigation is made by three parts. The first one is the historic context that the Candelaria neighborhood had had in the Bogota's center. I made a big focus in the apple that is between the streets 10th and 11th and the avenues 4th and 5th; nowadays there is La manzana cultural Del Banco de la República. The second part is about the development of a hypothesis related with the cultural apple, it´s going to be work since the question How the Manzana Cultural del Banco de la República can show the Bogota´s architecture identity and tradition? This part was about the seven ages of Colombia's architecture and creates a link between the main elements that can be particular of Bogotá D.C and the Manzana Cultural. The last part of the investigation concludes with a critical comparison about the Bogotá's Historic center in a contradistinction with the Santiago Tunja's Historical Center.
Keywords: protection, conservation, identity, university, cultural heritage values
Now it wants the mastery of ''mechanic'' in place of that of ''bricklayer''. It wants architects able to build while having to think about or be able to disassemble. Oftentimes we see the arrogance of so many artifacts that arrogate to themselves the right to feel immortal and instead of this are only premature obsolescence ungovernable. The implementation timing of contemporary architecture are often Jurassic, and even when the building is not already completed, usually the circumstances for which it was wanted change, impairing the realization that more and more often doesn´t allow to go back. Architecture is no longer able to keep up with the constant changes that the environment imposes (now increasingly rapid). Some case studies take us to a deep reflection. We will have, therefore, to rethink architecture with all the meanings of the temporal transformation, then operational reversibility.
ARCHITECTURAL ORGANISATION OF SOCIAL CLUSTERS IN BURUNDI
The situation of poverty in the Republic of Burundi is one of the most extreme in the world, 93% of the population lives below the poverty line. Less than 10% of the population lives in urban areas and many peasants mostly live on subsistence level. Because of poverty, many families build their homes on their own invented materials: cardboard, plastic, or mats on illegal land obtained during the occupation. These settlements, as a rule, do not have adequate public services, a healthy environment or public safety. The social environment in the vicinity can be a breeding ground for all kinds of problems: many children often do not attend school, people do not have paid work, and some of them may even be involved in criminal activity. Therefore, the government faces enormous challenges in the areas of sheltering the urban poor. This study focuses on showing the need of durable housing for Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs). The objective of the study is highlight the needs of the low-income residents and to preserve the vernacular building cultures. A quantitative and qualitative methodology is applied with both social and physical analysis. The result of this research is a proposal of a typical cluster able to group a population of 5000. In this way permanent shelter will be gradually provided to the 80,000 Internally Displaced Peoples in different provinces of Burundi.
Keywords: Burundi, Housing, Internally Displaced Persons
Industrial Archaeology and rehabilitation in Sicily
In the heart of Sicily there is a forgotten treasure, made of old buildings and stone wells, nowadays an integral element of the charming landscape in the hinterland of the island, what remains of the sulphur mines that were the protagonists of the world economy for almost two centuries. Among the ruins of the countryside of Caltanissetta and Enna, it is possible to follow the evolution of the techniques for the extraction of sulphur, the transition from archaic mechanical elements moved by animal power to more modern electrical motor, melting tools overtaken by the new efficient inventions of chemical engineering. A thriving business in the European outline, even though it was pegged to archaic and obsolete production systems, which have decreed its death. The greatest legacy of the yellow gold in Sicily is an estate of equipment in the area that it is worth protecting and imagining a reuse. Currently the ancient Floristella-Grottacalda mining complex is part of the homonym Park of the Mining, while a remaining area of Grottacalda Mine is poorly managed by private citizens. The article presented below is inspired by a detailed research on the historical and social dynamics of the economy of the sulphur, a work carried out in order to deepen the diachronic evolution of Grottacalda Mine. Starting from the acquired knowledge, several planning proposals were advanced for the recovery and the rehabilitation of architectural factories.
Keywords: Industrial Archaeology, Refurbishment, Prison building.
Water and Urban scenography in Universal exhibitions since 1939
This article complements a precedent one which studies the use of water in the urban spaces of the Universal Exhibitions until 1929. It is focused on three groups and some specific events in each one. As a beginning, we will mainly stop at the Universal Exhibitions of New York 1939 and 1964, Osaka 1970 and Okinawa 1975. We will realize how fascinating the relationship between light and water was, in order to transform the space and try creating the called “world of tomorrow”.
At the end of the century, as water begun being a precious resource, sustainability was one of the main aims of several exhibitions like Seville 1992, Lisbon 1998 or Hannover 2000. We will finally finish talking about the exhibitions during the XXIst. century; Zaragoza 2008, Shangai 2010 or Yeosu 2012 and future events like Milan 2015, where water is a new paradigm for human being development. Our article is a journey through Universal Exhibitions with water as its guiding argument. The liquid joins urban design, scenography, art and the poetic of space. The way it is used along the different exhibitions, is a reflection of human being aims, its sensitivity and society interests.
Key words: Water; urban scenography; Universal Exhibitions
WATER AND URBAN SCENOGRAPHY
Water, essential material for the spatial creation from the territorial scale up to the most intimate one, has been used along history to create scenographies. We will study its use in the urban spaces of the Universal Exhibitions, ephemeral cities, created specifically for important cultural events which show new trends in urban development as well as the last technical advances and artistic concepts. Thus, we will focus on their different scales, from new urban planning up to the last water piece detail.
Because of the amount of events since the Universal Exhibition in London in 1851, beginning of our travel, we have selected two groups and some specific events in each one. As a beginning, we will visit the London Exhibition in 1851, the Chicago´s Columbine one in 1893 and the Paris one who took place in 1900. We will realize how fascinating the relationship between light and water was, in order to transform the space, both in their scenographic fountains and their landscape design.
We will finish at the beginning of the twentieth century, studying the ludic use of water in Seville´s Exhibition in 1929 and the evolution of “waterlight” art and the “magic fountains” of Barcelona the same year. During those ages, water scarcity was not a problem, the liquid was more a medium than a valuable good and current sustainability ideas were still far. Everything would change during the twentieth century and would be a new paradigm during the twenty first one but, it would be another story which we will study later. Our article shows a crossing travel through Universal Exhibitions with water as its guiding argument. The liquid joins urban design, scenography, art and the poetic of the space waiting for our applause.
Key words: Water; urban scenography; Universal Exhibitions
NEW MEDITERRANEAN URBAN FACE
The land coast, with particular emphasis the port-city, are in fact used more and more like a menu in which different users increasingly move freely according to their needs.
The new definition parameters with respect to which the landscapes are recognizable, articulating configurations, immutable, and not concluded, but on the contrary, variables are always open and more leads, not the placement of functions, but the interaction between subjects, and actually pushed social, cultural, political and economic ...
The port city now seems more like a miscellany, and a composite variable, the definition of which combine multiple devices and whose understanding and operational management appears to be no longer in the perimeter of registers and formal, but the identification of rules and tactics logical drive and able to predict particular outcomes and the evolution of the different dynamics and vocations.
“Dream City”, “Dream Lands” and “Dream Country” will constitute the new benchmarks in the definition of geographies based on imagination, perception and use of spaces and scenarios from the sensitivity of each individual and class user, until the size of the global imaginary fantasy, with respect to which space, urbanity and territories are distinguished as “complementary” or “complementary” depending on the specific “action brands” and “areas of opportunity”.
Keywords: Mediterranean cities, new paradigm, urban face.
THE KEY-ROLE OF PUBLIC AUTHORITIES IN THE SOCIAL HOUSING PROCESS
A study on the right to housing reveals the needy to face the topic of housing affordability. In fact, this is a topic which is currently likely to become a social issue. Globalization is strongly connected to our metropolitan cities: goods and individual mobility increases, lifestyles and needs change, new ways of living arise.
The economic crisis is often seen as a brake on growth, but in reality it can turn into an opportunity to revitalize the research on new solutions and methods towards economic, environmental and social sustainability.
Against this background, the problem of housing emergency comes to light. New policies designed to stimulate social housing provisions have to be improved in order to develop the supply of affordable housing.
The Public Administration must recover its traditional role of promoting and financing housing initiatives. Public-private partnerships seem to be the best solution to share tasks and risks. The private actor collaborates as an investor, with means and resources, and the public body acts as a provider and supervisor of the process to protect general interest.
The challenge is to achieve a rational approach towards social housing. The experience of a country, such as Austria, has been a good example owing to the implementation of effective procedures and efficient management. Analysing this model it is possible to identify problems in the Italian system and to outline guidelines to develop new housing policies towards the achievement of social and sustainable projects.
Keywords: social housing, public authority, Vienna.
Experiencias desde la Gestión Ambiental Urbana
Usually the built heritage; the constructed floor; cultural diversity, and cultural landscapes are managed as objects of urban system and identifying value to society, and not as environmental problems , mainly urban . For urban environmental management behaves built heritage as environmental resources; Since they are the result of the interrelation – society-nature . Although treated even in a limited way, so it is not commonly done management from this perspective. One reason for this is the sectorial approach, which associates the resource with its origin. A conceptual model and a methodology are development to integrate concepts, instruments and tools, which will provide a change in the state of urban environment through conservation of resources, built heritage value. The experiences of urban environmental management developed under ecosystem, strategic and participative approaches has allowed people of Holguin province , deploy conservation experiences . His main contribution has been to integrate the isolated efforts of the entities that manage these resources under the criteria of their contribution to local development from an environmental perspective that allows a group to meet social needs associated with specific conservation and urban areas; the environmental status of the city.
Keywords: Built heritage, value of the heritage, urban environmental management.
The seismic vulnerability of vernacular architecture
The urban census, here proposed, is aimed at an expeditious as articulated knowledge of state of consistency, conservation and seismic risk of the architectural vernacular heritage, especially from the point of view of the seismic vulnerability, giving as assumed the condition of unpredictability of an seismic event, which is as evident as the probability of an earthquakes, characterized by an assigned intensity, in a pre-defined areas and considering a pre-assigned time window. The tool, described below, does not have a technical value in the narrow sense, it primarily do not want to suggest how to act on historic vernacular buildings, but rather it wants to provide general technical data of whether it is possible to intervene, proposing a preliminary scenario about outcomes, which are reasonably obtainable in particularly complex and compromise, contexts as, at first glance, it might seem, in terms of preservation of historical architectural vernacular heritage, in the case study of San Procopio. The contextual conditions are often the reason of the need to propose an expeditious tool, which is not only fast and unique, although at the same time able to document and represent complexity and variants of an architecture without architects, but also able to be used with a good level of control and uniformity by the average practitioner and professional, although not particularly experienced under the point of view of how to read and understand the ancient building, above all if not monumental, especially in terms of seismic performance.
The houses of Jardim Filhos da Terra
Slums are no longer temporary solutions for the need for housing, but are becoming permanent. The phenomenon of this state of informality as a solution to the urgent need for housing in an exponential growing economy has been present in different ages and has been studied by architects and urbanists throughout the history of architecture. Slums are present in most developing countries. Yet given that slums are a consistent reality in the urban fabric they need to be studied individually during their development, as if they were cells of a unique entity - the contemporary city. In the last two decades, there has been in-depth research on informal settlements. This research has focused both on the reasons for the phenomenon and on possible intervention methodologies. Research treats the slum as an integrated part of the contemporary city, studying it with the same tools as the formal ones.The research methodology used in ''Jardim Filhos da Terra'' combines the Saverio Muratori traditional survey method with modern tools of urban analysis. This was tested during a period of research in a favela of São Paulo in Brazil. São Paulo was chosen because the city has invested in in-depth research on this phenomenon and is making a strong effort to find a solution for the integration of the informal settlements into the urban fabric. From this survey it was finally possible to make a taxonomy of the 68 surveyed plots, and from there to hypothesize the informal urban development.The greatest result was the understanding of housing evolution within the plot throughout time. That is a tool enabling planners to make previsions for the development of this informal fabric.
LOS CENTROS COMERCIALES EN COLOMBIA
There are societies, which in a market economy, and the consequential globalization processes of syndrome TLC (Free Trade Agreements), transfer of technologies and knowledge, you have bet, a market model, which despite the global economic crisis, and way as knocking a the U.S. In countries such as Colombia, faithful to this economic paradigm, it follows the boom and unbridled construction of Shopping Centers, which apparently make believe the citizen common and current that their standard of living improves with the proliferation of these shopping centers, but this only works for investors, leaving on the rug, not only problems generation unqualified, but enormous consequences in other key variables such as quality of life, mobility, public space management, architectural and urban planning issues and problems of ideological and social idiosyncrasies that make us see these huge masses as the new paradigm of development for companies that follow these guidelines from the U.S. model, because in Europe they do not constitute a development paradigm. Specifically it aims to develop a critical and reflective reasoning on social dynamics filing the proliferation of malls in specific historical contexts as Colombian society.
Architettura della città: Napoli lo spazio della città che cambia
With the Architectural Planning Laboratory within the framework of the DiARC, University of Naples, the educational and training path is led by the idea of a research impacting the public space, the landscape and the new housing dynamics, starting from the Greek-Roman city. The ancient centre is the beating heart of a city such as Naples, that can not be defined in a univocal way. There is more than one Naples, the city has manifold facets and ancient Neapolis is only its best-documented catalogue. This architectural project is the outcome of a travel of knowledge – a thorough knowledge of the places, their material and immaterial conditions, that defines the possible proposals for the ancient city centre. Even beyond the possibility of a transformation in compliance with the places, its aim is to tell the story of the strategic processes and the issues underlying real urban transformation.
El barrio El Jordán de la ciudad de Tunja
The present document is part of the research project ''Territory, memory and identity in the popular urban settlements: the case of the Jordan district of the city of Tunja in the second half of the 20th century (1950-1980)'', whose purposes are to know construction of identity processes, carried out by the inhabitants of this sector and promote the strengthening of community ties and the group conscience. Accordingly, the document seeks to highlight some of the practices that have contributed to the phenomenon of appropriation of space, as well as to establish the relevance of these for the construction of a neighborhood identity, in this sector of the city, taking into account the character of its inhabitants and the circumstances of the occupation process.
Key words: popular settlements, territory, neighborhood identity, memory
MUSICALIDAD, DISONANCIA Y SILENCIO EN EL CENTRO HISTORICO DE BOGOTA'
The theme corresponds to interventions in consolidated centers. We analyzed, comparatively, two architectural projects located in the historic center of Bogota. Image 1, art museum of the Bank of the Republic of Enrique Triana and Image 2, Fondo de Cultura Económica de Rogelio Salmona. The present writing is assumed as a critical process about interventions in contemporary consolidated centers. For the development of the exercise are taken two projects in Bogota.
The prelude as a prelude to the critical exercise, it is advancing with the study of the context of the historical center, the equipment that helped consolidate, and the insertion of the urban projects; henceforth, to sustain the critical position, the work is oriented toward display relevant aspects of the work of two architects. The next step is to address the building Fund of Economic Culture of Rogelio Salmona arguing the elements that disuenan in the intervention; and the Art Museum of the Bank of the Republic of Enrique Triana as a discreet and quiet position in the center consolidated.
Heritage Series. Ibagué Colombia
From a particular vision of heritage structure is a way to demonstrate the potential methodological material heritage town of Ibague. Methodologically starts from the concepts of type, type and number, around these notions are incorporated with potential real estate, in order to make them visible to the inhabitants of the region, while contrasting with topics related to authors the series. The result is building two new proposals, as typological series and series bio-poetic function symbiotically, the two series are assets. Based on the results of the study concluded that the implementation of this route methodological proposal can provide recognition as a heritage house recondite, constituting an alternative possibility of nomination from local heritage.
Keywords: number, type, heritage potential.
APROXIMACIÓN FORANEA AL PATRIMONIO BOYACENSE
This paper constitutes an approach to heritage Boyacá, in regard to general features that translate their culture, but with emphasis on artificial facts represented in urban public space - parks, streets - and those buildings that their importance to historical and architectural level have been recognized as a fundamental part of the built heritage in Colombian territory, the look herein will relate our professional work with prints, obtained through the paths and recognition of cultural values in this region, reflected through photographs and drawings, which allowed capture moments, but also the essence that enclose its wonderful landscapes, composed of natural and artificial elements in constant interaction. It then translates an itinerary composed of those who, in our view, appear to be the main sites and aspects that make up the heritage of two of the most representative of this department: Tunja, the capital, and Villa de Leyva, given its historical and architectural legacy as part of its built heritage. Finally, the paper acts as a first approach that can contribute to the generation of a greater awareness of the importance of heritage, to build a regional identity.
CASA CATTANEO. CERNOBBIO
An ideal home derived by a perfect geometry. The rigor of lightness, the theme of transparency and vertical distribution: proportion and perfection that are explained in all the scales and details: from the handle to the internal layout, from the wise use of solids and voids, to the materials. A corollary of all compositive aspects. The house for rent, located on Como lake, was designed, between 1938 and '39, by Cesare Cattaneo, rationalist architect from Como, just 3 years later his diploma in architecture at Milan Polytechnic. Being owned by himself, he can experiment freely, “without succumbing to the tyrannical desire of clients”, his enthusiasm for details. It is a small apartments building for the middle class, an ideal field to test a number of problems of composition and technology: from distribution to the location on the environment, from the cost to the good keeping in time, providing us, with a structure still well preserved, an innovative study of Modern solutions. The house stands on a site alongside a short distance from anonymous dwellings. The initial choice was therefore to communicate a violent conflict with the closer existing architectures, claimed the right to belong Modern architecture inside of city centers. Although the natural context of the lake, the visual cones, the broad urban environment are subtly understood inside the project, Cattaneo wants, with his architecture, to give an innovative element for the place, with characteristics that could almost be described as a monumental modernism.
Cesare Cattaneo, Modern movement/ Natural context, Architect's home
CULTURA DELL'ACQUA E CONOSCENZA LOCALE: IL CASO DI SIENA
Water as a scarce resource and as a common good undoubtedly constitutes a relevant issue since it is linked to the empowerment of local communities. Researches on developing countries highlight the role of traditional knowledge in achieving sustainability goals based on an appropriate use of natural resources, by establishing the harmony of architecture with the environment, the symbiosis of the techniques of organization of space with the traditions, the social habits, the spiritual values and the fusion between practical aspects and beauty. Some historical infrastructures of Italian municipalities in the Middle Age and in the Renaissance – such as the underground aqueduct of the city of Siena – also constitutes an example of these shared social-natural “constructs”.
LA NEGACIÓN DE LO PÚBLICO
This document aims to reflect on a specific aspect of urban public space, related uses and appropriations of the street in neighborhood communities in the city of Ibagué. The street has been regarded by history as one of the main components of the system of public space, since it constitutes excellence in field of communication and citizen relationships. However, walking or watching our cities, we see how people use public space for their own benefit, regardless of their collective character, which is evident in statements that deny, in the case of the street, their intrinsic public status.
Urbane life, the street, public space, the city and the public, urbanism.
IL METODO DI ERNESTO NATHAN ROGERS E L'INVENZIONE DI GIO PONTI.
Ernesto Nathan Rogers Method and Gio Ponti Invention: consciousness among art, architecture and life. A rare empathy with the art world and ethic instruments for these two different protagonists in a Post II World War Italy that wants to grow with multi-faceted intellectual activity. Diverse positions and aims, with equal responsibility for a truly integral Italian architecture, on one hand ''able to design and detail'' of the other to follow ethics and democracy in the profession. If Ponti writes: ''The architects? Is not their a profession but a grace”, Rogers replied that architecture is a carefulness engagement, a commitment. Two faces become necessities of life, eros and logos, Calvino's lightness of memory (companion of every Pontian creation) in contrast to ideological confrontation. United in diversity, figures needed in mutual consideration of their specific features, shape in crucial stage of the debate about modern architecture, in the common perception of the powerful legacy of history, to be reinterpreted today in the transverse architecture stifled by the logic of contract and subservience to fashion.
Key Word:Art/architecture, Post II World War, Method
Genius Loci e Genius Aedificii di Chiara Visentin
Ovvero sulla comprensione reciproca
Il breve dialogo immaginario che segue è un estratto di un testo più ampio di prossima pubblicazione. Un irreale incontro tra due ideali divinità, il genio del Luogo e il genio dell'Architettura, recuperando l'acute;antico strumento del dialogo, fondamentale per lo scambio delle idee e per la loro verifica. Tale forma di comunicazione, da sempre strumento di comprensione reciproca, ha antecedenti illustri, dallo stile socratico dei dialoghi platonici, a Heidegger, a Gadamer, fino alla prosa di Eupalinos di Paul Valery. Chiedo loro venia per essermene appropriata senza poter assurgere alla loro altezza, pensando però di averne condiviso lo stimolante piacere di questa forma di scrittura delle idee.